marai meaning in tamil

[25], In his treatise of Tamil literary history published in 1974, Zvelebil states that the Kural text does not belong to the Sangam period and dates it to somewhere between 450 and 500 CE. "[22] Thus, Tirukkural literally comes to mean "sacred couplets."[1]. [105] He never indulged in specifics but always stressed on the basic principles of morality. [49] An army has a duty to kill in battle, and a king must execute criminals for justice. Babies are experts on sign language. [26], Besides these inherent difficulties in translating the Kural, some scholars have attempted to either read their own ideas into the Kural couplets or deliberately misinterpret the message to make it conform to their preconceived notions. "[94] The Kural differs from every other work on morality in that it follows ethics, surprisingly a divine one, even in its Book of Love. The Abandonment of Reserve (, Chapter 133. To the question "What is wealth of all wealth?" The name Marai is suitable for baby born in [200] The sthala vriksham (holy tree of the temple) at the temple is the oil-nut or iluppai tree under which Valluvar is believed to have been born. Wondering what is this? [19][a] Certain epithets for God and ascetic values found in the text are found in Jainism, states Zvelebil. [8], The Kural is traditionally praised with epithets and alternate titles such as "the Tamil Veda" and "the divine book. [123] Parimelalhagar's commentary has survived over the centuries in many folk and scholarly versions. Beschi means thus 'those who swim the vast sea of miseries'. Babies when born have knee caps but these do not come if their X – ray is taken. K. Balachander's Kavithalayaa Productions opened its films with the very first couplet of the Kural sung in the background. [85] Unlike Manusmriti, the Tirukurral does not give importance to castes or any dynasty of rulers and ministers. Pleasures of Temporary Variance (, Chapters 39–63: Royalty, the qualities of the leader of men, Chapters 64–73: The subject and the ruler, Chapters 74–96: Essential parts of state, shrewdness in public life, Chapters 97–108: Reaching perfection in social life. [216], The Kural text was first included in the school syllabus by the colonial era British government. [108], The Kural is one of the most reviewed of all works in Tamil literature, and almost every notable scholar has written exegesis or commentaries (explanation in prose or verse), known in Tamil as urai, on it. This information is developed to primarily serve as a reference. [9] Another states he was an outcaste, born to a Pariah woman and a Brahmin father. [206][207] The tallest of these is the 41-metre (133 ft) stone statue of Valluvar erected in 2000 atop a small island in the town of Kanyakumari on the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, at the confluence of the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean. In Valluvar's theory of state, unlike Kautilya, the army (patai) is the most important element. [185] Kural's couplets are found in numerous songs of Tamil movies. Probably that’s the reason you will see babies laughing just at about anything. [citation needed] As of 2013, Perimelalhagar's commentary appeared in more than 200 editions by as many as 30 publishers. Of these, only the works of Manakkudavar, Paridhi, Kaalingar, Pari Perumal, and Parimelalhagar are available today. [124] The third one was published in 1991 under the title "Jaina Urai" (meaning Jaina commentary) by Saraswathi Mahal Library in Thanjavur. [41] There are also accounts claiming that, during his return journey, Valluvar sat under a tree whose shadow sat still over him and did not move the entire day, he killed a demon, and many more. [200] The locals believe that this is where Valluvar was born, underneath a tree within the shrines complex. Thank you for your support. Acoording to vedic astrology , Rashi for the name Marai is [26] According to Zvelebil, besides being part of the ancient Tamil literary tradition, the author was also a part of the "one great Indian ethical, didactic tradition" as a few of the verses in the Kural text are "undoubtedly" translations of the verses of earlier Indian texts. [80][81][82] Contrary to what the Manusmriti says, Valluvar holds that aṟam is common for all, irrespective of whether the person is a bearer of palanquin or the rider in it. The name is derived from the Latin words "istunus" or "iustus", which means "just". The Kural is considered a masterpiece and one of the most important texts of the Tamil Literature. [169] Verse 22.59–61 of the Manimekalai – a Buddhist-princess and later nun based love story epic, likely written about the 6th century CE, also quotes the Tirukkural. There were at least ten medieval commentaries of which only six have survived into the modern era. [184][j], The Kural does not appear to have been set in music by Valluvar. [222][223] The concept of ahimsa or இன்னா செய்யாமை, which remains the moral foundation of vegetarianism and veganism, is described in the Kural chapter on non-violence (Chapter 32). [224], b. This emphasis on substance rather than poetry suggests that Valluvar's main aim was not to produce a work of art, but rather an instructive text focused on wisdom, justice, and ethics. The term Tirukkural is a compound word made of two individual terms, tiru and kural.Tiru is an honorific Tamil term that corresponds to the universally Indian, Sanskrit term sri meaning "holy, sacred, excellent, honorable, and beautiful." [162], Since the 1970s, the Kural text has been transliterated into ancient Tamil scripts such as the Tamil-Brahmi script, Pallava script, Vatteluttu script and others by Gift Siromoney of the International Institute of Tamil Studies (IITS, Madras Christian College). [168] Similarly, the love story Perunkatai (lit. It is one of the 27 wells dug on the orders of Ellis in 1818, when Madras suffered a severe drinking water shortage. However, the subdivisions beyond these three, known as iyals, as found in some surviving manuscripts and commentaries, are likely later additions because there are variations between these subtitles found in manuscripts and those in historical commentaries. While in Chapter 7 he asserts that the greatest gain men can obtain is by their learned children (Kural 61), Indian languages: Sanskrit, Hindi, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, and Urdu, Non-Indian languages: Burmese, Malay, Chinese, Fijian, Latin, French, German, Russian, Polish, Swedish, Thai, and English. [135], The first European language translation (Latin) was published by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730. In regard to the virtues one should follow dearly even at the expense of other virtues, Valluvar points to veracity (Kural 297), not coveting another's wife (Kural 150), and not being called a slanderer (Kural 181). [163][164], Some of the teachings in the Tirukkuṛaḷ, states Zvelebil, are "undoubtedly" based on the then extant Sanskrit works such as the more ancient Arthashastra and Manusmriti (also called the Manavadharmasastra). [1] While the text extols the virtue of non-violence, it also dedicates many of 700 poruḷ couplets to various aspects of statecraft and warfare in a manner similar to the Hindu text Arthasastra. Mayuram Vishwanatha Shastri set all the verses to music in the early 20th century. [66][67] For example, the following subdivisions or iyals are found in Parimelalhagar's version, which greatly varies from that of Manakkudavar's:[68], Such subdivisions are likely later additions, but the couplets themselves have been preserved in the original form and there is no evidence of later revisions or insertions into the couplets. [155] In 1917, Manakkudavar's commentary for the first book of the Kural text was published by V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. "[70] There are no structural gaps in the text, with every couplet indispensable for the structured whole. ", Valluvar shrines and monuments styled after Hindu temples are found in various parts of Tamil Nadu. [201] The temple was extensively renovated in the 1970s.

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