absorption coefficient of amorphous silicon

While there has been tremendous progress in the understanding of the problem (Fritzsche, 2001), it still persists. Some of the problems are related to a change in structure; others relate to the creation of new defects due to compositional disorder. The first solar-powered calculators were already available in the late 1970s, such as the Royal Solar 1, Sharp EL-8026, and Teal Photon. Since the first observation of doping in a-Si:H (Spear and LeComber, 1975) and subsequent demonstration of solar cells (Carlson and Wronski, 1976), there was high expectation that a-Si:H solar cells will dominate the photovoltaic (PV) market. Used as semiconductor material for a-Si solar cells, or thin-film silicon solar cells, it is deposited in thin films onto a variety of flexible substrates, such as glass, metal and plastic. Amorphous silicon nitride (SiN) has been a known thin film material in the semiconductor and MEMS fields over several decades. a-Si:H is a very intriguing material. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a very attractive material for large-area thin-film electronics, namely as thin-film transistors for flat panel displays, as color sensors, or as the absorbing layer for solar cells. Increasing the concentration of carbon in the alloy widens the electronic gap between conduction and valence bands (also called "optical gap" and bandgap). As for the solar cells, by using a single-junction cell with a homogenous microstructure, a stabilized efficiency of η = 10% on texture-etched ZnO:Al has been obtained. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been used as a photovoltaic solar cell material for devices which require very little power, such as pocket calculators, because their lower performance compared to conventional crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is more than offset by their simplified and lower cost of deposition onto a substrate. The material also contains defects, such as dangling, strained, and weak bonds, that act as recombination centers for the electrons and the holes. Furthermore, these materials contain several percent of hydrogen, which assists in neutralizing or passivating grain boundaries. A wide variety of gas mixtures has been explored to improve material quality, and dilution of silane with hydrogen has been the most successful. Most such systems can be engineered to carry heat away from the solar cells thereby cooling the cells and thus improving their efficiency by lowering resistance. [20], Microcrystalline and micromorphous silicon, Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors, Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display, "Intrinsic and light induced gap states in a-Si:H materials and solar cells—effects of microstructure", "Life cycle analysis of silane recycling in amorphous silicon-based solar photovoltaic manufacturing", "Hole-mobility limit of amorphous silicon solar cells", "Hole-mobility-limiting atomic structures in hydrogenated amorphous silicon", The End of Oerlikon’s Amorphous Silicon Solar Saga, "Oerlikon Divests Its Solar Business and the Fate of Amorphous Silicon PV", "Xunlight Completes Installation of its First 25 Megawatt Wide-Web Roll-to-Roll Photovoltaic Manufacturing Equipment", "Anwell Produces its First Thin Film Solar Panel", "TFT LCD – Electronic Aspects of LCD TVs and LCD Monitors", Amorphous Silicon Devices group at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, Theory and Simulation at Ohio University, Athens Ohio, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amorphous_silicon&oldid=963789059, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Thin-film silicon solar panels on rooftop, This page was last edited on 21 June 2020, at 20:06. However, a-Si passivated by hydrogen, where hydrogen atoms bond with the dangling bonds to produce hydrogenated, Flexible photovoltaic cells embedded into textile structures, Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules, Materials Science of Thin Films (Second Edition), Advances in Plasma-Grown Hydrogenated Films, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Photovoltaics: Advanced Inorganic Materials, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies (Second Edition). The presence of the recombination centers arising from the defects and the band tails hurts the transport and lowers the efficiency, even though the photon absorption is efficient. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The main advantages of this material are the low deposition temperature that offers the use of glass and flexible substrates, the potential for tuning the energy bandgap (1.7–1.9 eV), the ease of doping by adding dopant gases during film growth, and finally the possibility of stacking layers without severe materials constraints. The presence of these and other heavy radicals in the plasma leads to films with poorer microstructure. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Amorphous silicon, and its more useful alloy form, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), has been the subject of investigation for more than three deca des. We should mention that high-quality material showing improved order has also been obtained using deposition conditions that form silicon clusters in the plasma (Roca i Cabarrocas 1998). Silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor so there is a long tail in absorption out to long wavelengths. One can also use cells with intrinsic layers of different band gaps to capture photons of wider spectrum. Moreover, not all the atoms within amorphous silicon are fourfold coordinated. A. Slaoui, R.T. Collins, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2008. Contained within this transition region are assorted fragmented molecular species, which in turn connect to the film growth zone and eventually to the stable a-Si:H network beneath the film surface. Figure 6. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) and hydrogenated versions of it, e.g., a-Si:H, are the basic materials discussed in this section. Several physical or chemical deposition techniques are used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon such as magnetron evaporation, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and, more recently, very high frequency CVD. Absorption coefficient of silicon in cm-1 as a function of the wavelength. In this regime the absorption … United Solar has reported 14.6% initial and 13.0% stable conversion efficiencies using an amorphous silicon-based alloy in a spectrum-splitting, triple-junction structure. [14], Typically, amorphous silicon thin-film cells use a p-i-n structure. 55) into a silicon deposit disordered by bond stretching and distortion.

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